How to Maintain Classroom Management with Different Models
Developing effective classroom management skills is an ongoing process that evolves as teachers encounter diverse teaching contexts. This article delves into various models for managing disruptive behavior in the classroom, addressing contributing factors and proactive strategies for better classroom management. Explore key models like Kounin's approach and the ABC Model, and discover how pre-intervention strategies and thoughtful instructional delivery can create a conducive learning environment.
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Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this blog post are solely those of the author, an alumni of ITTT (International TEFL and TESOL Training). They do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of ITTT. The content provided in this post is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as official endorsement or representation by ITTT.
The development of classroom management understanding and skill is a process acquired over many years and characterized by discontinuities, especially as the teacher encounters new teaching contexts. In addition, beginning teachersâ perspectives on classrooms are often incomplete and rapidly reorganize their pedagogical knowledge during student teaching. Developing an understanding of classroom management thus requires experience in classroom contexts to be pragmatic; that is, to be integrated into the network of scripts, expectations, and routines that the teacher will utilize in the classroom and to result in the effective management of students.
Problems related to behavior in the classroom affect a wide variety of people. It threatens the security and attainments of other pupils and is a source of stress for staff, sometimes leading to confidence crises or even depression. For the disruptive pupil too, there can be negative consequences, including delinquency and severe academic underachievement. Improving the management of this problem is also likely to have widespread benefits not only for mini-systems like schools but also for society at large.
The general term, conduct disorder, spans a wide range of behaviors, all of which can be considered antisocial to some degree (Gardner, 1992). The definition of disruptive behavior includes any behavior that appears problematic, inappropriate, or disturbing to teachers (Galloway and Rogers, 1994).
- Aggressive behavior: e.g., hitting, kicking, pushing, using abusive language
- Physically disruptive behavior: e.g., smashing, damaging, or defacing objects, throwing objects, physically annoying other pupils
- Socially disruptive behavior: e.g., screaming, running away, exhibiting temper tantrums
- Authority-challenging behavior: e.g., refusing to carry out requests, using insulting language
- Self-disruptive behavior: e.g., daydreaming, reading comics under the desk (it may be noted that although it may not disrupt the teacher and other pupils, such behavior is likely to interfere considerably with the pupilâs academic attainments).
While any one of these types of behavior is likely to be disruptive for teachers and other pupils, frequency, magnitude, and multi-category characteristics are often key factors for school staff when requesting the advice of visiting support professionals. Before examining models for classroom management and to have a good understanding of the models, we should take contributing factors for disruptive behaviors into consideration.
Curwin and Menler (1999) present a list of global causes of misbehavior that describe more specific roots of classroom dissension:
- Violence in society
- Massive media coverage of overt and covert messages regarding âsex, violence, and deathâ
- A throw-away societal mentality focused on individual indulgence and subsequent escape from family commitment
- Unstable home situations
- A wide range of temperaments among children.
Curwin and Mendler (1999) also suggest more localized contributing factors, such as bored students, feelings of powerlessness, ambiguous parameters for behavior, lack of redirected outlets for expressing negative feelings, and personal attacks upon oneâs dignity.
Other factors, more parochial in nature, may create problems in the classroom: insufficient modeling by the teacher, low expectations of students, the âbuddyâ approach to managing students, the teacherâs failure to follow through with stated expectations, the teacherâs decision to ignore misbehavior, the absence of concerted instructions in how to succeed, the childâs feeling of inadequacy and fear of failure, and the childâs lack of pride in self and in school.
Kounin: In this model, the skills found among effective teachers are described as: âwittinessâ (close monitoring of each childâs behavior), overlapping (effectively addressing multiple events simultaneously), smoothness and momentum in lessons (providing instructions that are motivating and rapidly passed and developmentally appropriate with few interruptions), and group alerting (maintaining everyoneâs attention).
ABC Model: With regard to classroom and individual pupil management, the Behavioral model has demonstrated that it is possible both to understand and change inappropriate and disruptive behavior. The traditional framework has been to focus on the antecedents of the behavior, the behavior itself, and the consequences which follow the behavior. Letâs look at the important terms:
Antecedents: The events preceding the problem behavior. Data collected here can lead to proactive, preventative management of potentially disruptive behavior.
Background: The setting or context. Information resulting from an examination of this dimension can encourage the creation of a learning environment that minimizes disruption and encourages positive and adaptive behavior.
Consequences: Those proximal and distant events which follow problem behavior. A consideration of consequences can generate more effective approaches to the management of problem behavior, after it has occurred.
Pre-intervention Strategies: The concept of pre-intervention, or precorrection of behaviors, is based on the philosophy that educators can recognize signs that indicate potentially inappropriate behavior (Colvin, 1993; Colvin & Patching, 1993). To implement pre-correction procedures, the teacher must adopt the belief that behaviors are predictable, meaning they can be anticipated.
Instructional Delivery: A properly developed instructional delivery plan has a well-defined beginning, middle, and end, indicating that there must be transition activities initiated before, during, and after instruction.
In the ever-evolving landscape of classroom management, teachers face diverse challenges that necessitate a multifaceted approach. By understanding different models, recognizing contributing factors, and implementing proactive strategies, educators can create an environment conducive to effective learning. Classroom management is not a one-size-fits-all endeavor; it's a dynamic process that requires continuous learning and adaptation. As teachers navigate the complexities of student behavior, they play a crucial role in shaping positive educational experiences and fostering a supportive learning environment.
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