3 EFL Teaching Methods You Should Know That Work
In this post, we'll be uncovering the secrets behind successful language instruction. We'll be looking at three different methods - Audio-Lingual, Presentation Practice Production (PPP), and Engage Study Activate. These methods play a big role in helping you learn languages confidently. Join us as we dive into these approaches and discover how they can make language learning a fantastic journey!
The Audio-Lingual method
Typical features of an Audio-lingual Method lesson:
One classification of lesson style is student-centered or teacher-centered. In a student-centered lesson, the teacher acts more as a facilitator for language learning, rather than an instructor. In the teacher-centered style, the teacher is the ‘knower’ of knowledge and passes this on to the students. The audio-lingual method is considered a teacher-centered methodology.
Another classification of lesson style is inductive or deductive. Simply put, inductive means we observe and then create a theory from those observations. Deductive is the other way around; we start with a theory and then observe how the theory works. The audio-lingual method is considered ‘inductive’. As such, we observe how a rule works and then formulate that rule. This means there is no real teaching of grammar and rules. Students learn these by using the rules.
New structures and grammar rules are presented by oral repetition of teacher modeling or through scripted conversations. The rules are memorized through repetition drills, forming habits. This leaves little room for mistakes to be made and allows for positive reinforcement of correct usage.Various types of drills known as repetition drills, substitution drills, and chain drills are used.
Presentation Practice Production
This is a three-stage methodology that comes under the umbrella of ‘Communicative Language Teaching’.
Phase 1 of the PPP Method: Presentation
The teacher presents new information (e.g., a grammar point) to the students. It is important that this information be presented in enough detail so that the students do not need any further information in the later phases of the lesson. The first part of this phase is to introduce the meaning of the new language. Then the teacher uses clear examples so that students can see correct usage.
Phase 2 of the PPP Method: Practice
This phase is to check understanding of the new language. To do this, the teacher often uses questions on worksheets, games, scripted conversations, and reading exercises. Whatever form the questions take, it is imperative that they are ‘targeted and specific’. This means that they are entirely unambiguous and are related only to the teaching points. It is very important that the students show full understanding of this phase before you move on to the final stage. If they do not understand the teaching point, you need to go back through this phase.
Phase 3 of the PPP Method: Production
The final phase is where the students are able to use the teaching point in a “Productive skills” way, which is speaking or writing, or both. Games are very often used in this phase as they provide a framework around which conversations can be built. Other useful activities would include surveys and questionnaires. Special attention needs to be given to the lower English levels when designing production activities, as you are not going to be able to give lengthy descriptions of how to do the activity. A good production activity for any level is one that can be demonstrated and not explained.
Engage Study Activate
This is another three-phase lesson structure that has some similarities with the PPP example.
Engage phase (Approximately 15% of the lesson time)
The sole purpose of this phase is to get the students talking and thinking in English. There is no teaching or correction needed in this phase. The best way to get all students involved is through simple activities such as making lists on the board of words/phrases generated by the students (elicited) from a short teacher prompt.
Study phase (Approximately 40% of the lesson time)
The study phase is usually broken into two parts:Part 1: This is where the language of the lesson is covered. The teacher will elicit as much about the language point as possible from the students and then fill in any gaps in knowledge.Part 2: This is to check that the students understand part 1. Typically this will be checked using a variety of worksheets from the easiest to harder. Once you are sure the students understand the teaching point, you can move on to the next phase. If they do not understand the teaching point, you should go over the material again and adjust your activate activity time accordingly.
Activate phase (Approximately 45% of the lesson time)
This is where the students are given an opportunity to put the language learnt in the lesson together with all their previous knowledge in a realistic activity that will produce the target language. As such, games are often used here, as well as activities such as questionnaires, surveys, and for higher-level students, debates.
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