Multiple IntelligenceGardner?s Seven Type of Intelligence
Traditionally, intelligence was viewed as a linear concept that could be measured by an IQ test. However, Howard Gardner proposed a new concept to intelligence, Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory. In Gardner?s MI theory, he states that there are 7 types of intelligence:
1) Verbal-linguistic intelligence
?Verbal/linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals? (Abdallah, 2008). An individual with well developed verbal-linguistic intelligence are exceptional in learning a new language. They learn through listening, reading, writing and discussing. They enjoy reading, writing, and telling stories.
Typically, writers, poets, and lawyers possess a high degree of verbal-linguistic intelligence.
2) Logical-mathematical intelligence,
According to Howard Gardner, people with logical mathematical intelligence are able to reason deductively and think logically. They enjoy solving mathematical operations and investigating scientific issues (Abdallah, 2008).
Scientist, computer programmers, and accountants demonstrate a high degree of logical-mathematical intelligence.
3) Musical intelligence
Musical intelligence involves skills in performance, composition and appreciation of musical patterns (Gardner, 1999). They are able to distinguish musical pitch, rhythm, and timbre that others may miss. They respond to music kinesthetically, through performing and moving. They have the ability to communicate through music, and enjoy playing with sounds (Laughlin, 1999).
Singers and composers typically possess a high degree of musical intelligence.
4) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
Individuals with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence use their body to solve problems. They process knowledge through bodily sensation, and are exceptional in coordinating their body movements (Smith, 2002). The best way for them to learn is through direct involvement, through concrete experiences, such as role play and model building.
Dancers, athletes, carpenters require a high degree of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
5) Visual-spatial intelligence
This entails the ability to create a visual-spatial representation of the world. They use visual images to recall information. They have an eye for objects, shapes, colors, faces and scenes. These individuals are good at observing details from what they see (Gardner, 1999).
Engineers, artists, designers, and photographer all demonstrate a high degree of visual-spatial intelligence.
6) Interpersonal intelligence
This refers to the ability to understand and read other peoples intention, feelings, motivation, thoughts, desires, goals, etc. Not only are they talented at understanding others, they use this knowledge to work effectively with others (Gardner, 1999). In general, it?s easy for them to form and maintain social relationships.
Teachers, politicians, psychologists, social workers have a high degree of interpersonal intelligence.
7) Intrapersonal intelligence
In involves the ability to understand oneself, and able to use that understanding to regulate our lives (Smith, 2002). They are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, and are able their emotions and reactions. (Wikipedia, n.d)
Authors and philosophers possess a high degree of intrapersonal intelligence.
Multiple Intelligence Theory and Its Role in Education
Abdallah suggests that using a Multiple Intelligence-Based Instruction (MIBI) can make learning a second language more effective. Using an MIBI means that students learn and show their understanding in many different ways. Traditionally, we measure student?s achievement only through paper-pencil test, such as reading comprehension, fill in the blanks, translate the text, essay writing, etc. MIBI suggests that teachers should use a variety of teaching strategies based on multiple intelligence.
?Nolen suggests that the presentation of foreign language teaching material should engage all or most of the intelligences due to the fact that each of the intelligences is potentially available in every learner.? (Sar?caoglu & Ar?kan, 2009) For example, Gökhan (2008) proposes several activities to follow after reading a storybook to students, draw a picture, make a craft, compose a song or rhythm, choreograph a dance, make a skit, make a picture dictionary or play a game related to the story. According to MIBI, it urges teacher to incorporate various teaching styles and activities into their lesson, however, it does not mean that they should design seven different activities to match each intelligence type. ?Instead, materials should allow students with different intelligence types to interact with each other and to develop the intelligences in which they are less strong? (Sar?caoglu & Ar?kan, 2009)
Gardner?s Multiple Intelligence has changed the way intelligence should be viewed. Rather than focusing on the traditional pencil-paper test taking method to measure intelligence. He has demonstrated that there are seven types of intelligence to consider. In the classroom, teachers need to plan their lessons incorporating all or several intelligence. Classroom activities and projects should allow students to explore and build on their strengths, as well as cooperate with individuals with different intelligence types.
Abdallah, M. (2008). Multiple Ways to be Smart: Gardener's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and its Educational Implications in English Teaching and Oral Communication. Online Submission,
Allen, B. (n.d.). Howard Gardner Seven Types of Intelligence. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from Professor Lamp: http://www.professorlamp.com/ed/TAG/7_Intelligences.html
Aysel Saricaoglu & Arda Arikan (2009). A Study of Multiple Intelligences, Foreign Language Success and Some Selected Variables, Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5 (2):110-122. Retrieved from: http://eku.comu.edu.tr/index/5/2/asaricaoglu_aarikan.pdf
Gardner, H. (1999): Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the
21st century. new york
Gökhan Bas (2008) Integrating Multiple Intelligences in ESL/EFL Classrooms. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from The Internet TESL Journal: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Bas-IntegratingMultipleIntelligences.html
Laughlin, J. (1999): ?Multiple intelligences?. In: Inquiry.4(2). Virginia
community college system. Retrieved, January, 1, 2003from
Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008) 'Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences', the encyclopedia of informal education, http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2012, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences