What are the 4 skills in TEFL?

The process of acquiring a new language involves mastering four fundamental skills: Reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These skills are categorized into two areas: Productive skills (writing and speaking) and receptive skills (reading and listening). In any English language classroom, ensuring the comprehensive coverage of these four skills is crucial to foster balanced English proficiency in students. While having students who can articulate in English fluently is commendable, they may face challenges in the future if they struggle with English reading and writing, especially in the workplace, for further education, or while traveling.


In the journey of learning our first language, listening is the initial step, as it enables us to absorb the language around us. For English students, listening is key to understanding the nuances of native English speakers' language usage, including the emphasis or omission of certain sounds. While your TEFL classroom textbook will offer abundant materials to enhance listening skills, real-world resources, such as song lyrics, movies, TV shows, and English radio, provide an invaluable supplement for listening activities. Creativity in sourcing materials can also lead to additional engaging options.

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The next skill we conquer in learning our first language is speaking. This can be particularly daunting for English students as it involves practicing in front of peers, a nerve-wracking experience in any language. Creating a supportive classroom environment where students feel secure making mistakes is essential for fostering their confidence to speak. To truly hone this skill, students should seize every opportunity to practice with each other and ideally with native English speakers. Numerous resources available online connect language learners with conversation partners, and local English language groups can also be beneficial.

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Reading typically follows listening and speaking in the progression of learning our native language. While your classroom textbooks will provide numerous reading exercises, an array of potentially more engaging materials exists if you are open to innovative lesson planning. For beginners or younger students, start with picture books, progressing to comic books, which are usually a hit with students. Once they reach intermediate levels, resources like online newspapers, journals, and blogs that align with students' interests can be utilized. Encouraging students to keep a notebook for noting unfamiliar words or phrases and providing them with a dictionary for on-the-spot translations can further enhance their reading skills.

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Writing is the final core skill in learning a new language. This can be especially challenging for students whose first language doesn't use a Latin script, predominantly those from North Africa and Asia. The key to mastering writing lies in practice, repetition, and more practice. Besides the valuable exercises provided in the class textbook, additional activities inside and outside the classroom can supplement learning. Writing letters, for instance, is a fruitful exercise as it doesn't require a specific format and the results need not be seen by the recipient. Encourage students to write to family, friends, classmates, or even pets - the important part is consistent practice.

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